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Thursday, May 21, 2009

Belajar Complex Sentences

Nah yang ingin belajar english, terutama tentang complex sentences
neh ada........


A complex sentence consists of one independent clause, and one or more dependent clauses. The clauses are connected through either a subordinate conjunction or a relative pronoun. The dependent clause is introduced by either a subordinate conjunction such as although, or because or a relative pronoun such as who or which.

The dependent clause may be the first or second clause in the sentence. If the first clause in the sentence is dependent, a comma usually separates the two clauses.


We had to go inside when it started raining.

Independent clause Dependent clause

The independent clause comes first, and is linked to

the subordinate (dependent) clause with the

subordinating conjunction "when."


As long as it isn't cold , it doesn't matter if it rains.

Dependent clause Independent clause

The dependent clause is in first position, so there is

a comma separating the two. The dependent clause begins

with the subordinating conjunction "as long as."

Compound Sentence: at least two independent clauses; no dependent clauses


He finally read the book , or so I thought.

The two independent clause are joined by a comma and

the coordinating conjunction "or."

A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since, after, although, or when or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which. In the following complex sentences, subjects are in yellow, verbs are in green, and the subordinators and their commas (when required) are in red.

A. When he handed in his homework he forgot to give the teacher the last page.
B. The teacher returned the homework after she noticed the error.
C. The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow.
D. After they finished studying Juan and Maria went to the movies.
E. Juan and Maria went to the movies after they finished studying.

When a complex sentence begins with a subordinator such as sentences A and D, a comma is required at the end of the dependent clause. When the independent clause begins the sentence with subordinators in the middle as in sentences B, C, and E, no comma is required. If a comma is placed before the subordinators in sentences B, C, and E, it is wrong.


Finally, sentences containing adjective clauses (or dependent clauses) are also complex because they contain an independent clause and a dependent clause. The subjects, verbs, and subordinators are marked the same as in the previous sentences, and in these sentences, the independent clauses are also underlined.

A.The woman who(m) my mom talked to sells cosmetics.

B.The book that Jonathan read is on the shelf.
C.The house which Abraham Lincoln was born in is still standing.
D.The town where I grew up is in the United States.

Adjective Clauses are studied in this site separately, but for now it is important to know that sentences containing adjective clauses are complex


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